i before e, except after c or when sounding like A, as in neighbor and weigh.
Prefixes and Suffixes
When adding a prefix, dont change the spelling of the word.
When adding the suffix ness or ly, dont change the spelling of the word.
Exceptions: For most words that end in y, change the y to i before ly or ness.
happy + ly = happily
friendly + ness = friendliness
Drop the final silent e before a suffix beginning with a vowel.
cause + ing = causing
reverse + ible = reversible
Keep the final silent e before a suffix beginning with a consonant.
hope + less = hopeless
agree + ment = agreement
For words ending in a consonant plus y, change the y to i before any suffix that does not begin with i.
cry + ed = cried
pretty + er = prettier
Double the final consonat before adding ing, ed, er, or est to a one-syllable word that ends in a single vowel followed by a single consonant.
beg + ing = begging
bat + ed = batted
Forming the Plural of Nouns
To form the plural of most nouns, add s.
Singular snack oven heap valley
Plural snacks ovens heaps valleys
Form the plural of nouns ending in s, x, z, ch, or sh by adding es.
Singular glass fox buzz patch
Plural glasses foxes buzzes patches
Form the plural of nouns ending in a consonant plus y by changing the y to i and adding es.
Singular country puppy berry
Plural countries puppies berries
Form the plural of nouns ending in a vowel plus y by adding s.
Singular boy turkey holiday
Plural boys turkeys holidays
Form the plural of nouns ending in a vowel plus o by adding s.
Singular rodeo patio stereo
Plural redeos patios stereos
Form the plural of nouns ending in a consonant plus o by adding es.
Singular tomato echo veto torpedo
Plural tomatoes echoes vetoes torpedoes
The plural of a few nouns is formed in irregular ways.
Singular woman mouse foot man child
Plural women mice feet men children
Some nouns are the same in the singular and the plural:
salmon Sioux deer fowl sheep